Plants, pollinators and global change: the effects of invasion and flowering phenology on plant-pollinator interactions

Global environmental change is currently happening more rapidly than at any time known in Earth’s previous history. The impacts of rapid biotic and abiotic change will affect multiple species interactions, including plant-pollinator interactions that are critical in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Invasion and climate-induced phenological shifts can have profound effects on plant-pollinator interactions that are not yet easily predicted given the current state of our knowledge. The research in this dissertation documents three ways global change will affect plant-pollinator interactions: (1) unexpectedly opposing effects of multiple shared pollinators on native and exotic plants (Chapter One); (2) surprising changes in interaction strength and direction resulting from unequal phenological shifting (Chapter Two); and (3) the emergence of new temporal patterns of floral resources in invaded communities (Chapter Three).