Native upland prairies, which once dominated the landscape of the Willamette Valley, are considered among the rarest of Oregon’s ecosystems. Even though only remnants remain today, they harbor many rare and endangered species such as the Fender’s blue butterfly and its host plant, Kincaid’s lupine. Invasion of remnant prairies by woody plants and weedy non-native herbaceous species is of great concern to agencies and managers responsible for conserving these native ecosystems. Available methods for the control of these pests include herbicides, biological control, prescribed burning, and mowing. This report first reviews the literature on the control of tall oatgrass and the shrubs poison oak and rose. Each of these species is an important threat to Willamette Valley upland prairies. We then present recommendations.
For control of tall oatgrass, we recommend for most situations mowing in late spring or early summer. Mowing height should be just above most of the foliage of native plants to be protected (typically 10 cm – 15 cm). In areas with Kincaid’s lupine and Fender’s blue butterfly, mowing should be delayed until July, after the flowering and flight seasons.
For control of prairie shrubs, we recommend further studies to evaluate herbicide effectiveness against the target shrubs and safety for non-target native plants and animals. If herbicide use is unavailable, we recommend burning or mowing. All burning or mowing treatments should be repeated, perhaps indefinitely, to maintain pest plant control.